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  • First global benchmark for measuring countries’ health inclusivity
  • Inaugural Index places UK top, followed by Australia, France, Germany, Sweden
  • Highest scoring countries empower people and communities with education, tools and services to help them take control of their own health
  • Countries’ wealth and health expenditure do not guarantee greater health inclusivity

11 OCTOBER, 2022: People living in countries which successfully prioritise ‘health inclusivity’ – whether policies, systems and cultures give everyone in society the chance to optimise their health – are more likely to live healthy lives for longer. That’s according to a world-first global study, published today.

Commissioned by Haleon, a global leader in consumer health, and devised by researchers at Economist Impact, the inaugural Health Inclusivity Index (HII) benchmarks 40 countries on the presence, coverage and effectiveness of inclusive healthcare systems, processes and policies.

The Index finds that the United Kingdom has the most inclusive approach to healthcare at a national policy and programme level, closely followed by Australia, France, Germany and Sweden. Other countries in the top ten include South Korea, Canada, Israel, Thailand and Switzerland.

The lowest scoring countries for health inclusivity are India, Honduras, Egypt, Algeria and Bangladesh.

The Index demonstrates the levers governments, policymakers and others can use to address health inequity and promote inclusion, particularly for vulnerable and marginalised people and communities. As the Index measures health inclusivity inputs rather than disparities in outcomes, in some countries, people’s perceived experiences may reveal a gap between policy and practice.

According to the Index, countries’ wealth and health expenditure do not guarantee greater inclusivity in health. While universal health coverage is necessary, it is not sufficient to ensure inclusivity.

Countries with the highest overall scores equip individuals and communities with the tools they need to take control of their own health. Eight of the top 10 ranking countries achieved their highest scores for the metric of ‘People and Community Empowerment’, where the presence of initiatives like health literacy programmes and community outreach enable people to proactively manage their own health.

Everyone should have the opportunity to live in good health, but millions of people continue to face barriers. The inaugural Health Inclusivity Index highlights the barriers which lead to the vulnerable and marginalised being held back from and less included in opportunities for better everyday health.

Raising awareness and creating a global benchmark are vital first steps in addressing health inequity, but this is just the start. We are also collaborating with industry, government, academia and other healthcare stakeholders to improve health inclusivity. This work is part of our commitment to empower millions of people a year to be more included in opportunities for better everyday health, empowering 50 million a year by 2025.

Brian McNamara

Chief Executive Officer, Haleon

Nine of the 12 countries ranking highest for health inclusivity also score highest for healthy life expectancy. This suggests an inclusionary approach to healthcare may lead to people spending a greater proportion of their lives in good health.

For policymakers, this finding highlights the critical role health inclusivity has to play. Many countries are facing a spiralling challenge of health not keeping pace with increases in life expectancy. Consequently, people are living in poor health for a longer proportion of their lives, impacting personal wellbeing and piling more pressure on overburdened healthcare systems.

Half of all countries studied lacked a strategy, policy or action plan to promote oral health. With a number of diseases and health conditions associated with poor oral health, the Index recommends that oral health assistance is actively included within universal health coverage systems, as seen in Brazil, for example.

The Index rightly recognises the fact that health is largely made or lost outside the formal health sector. It brings together critically important data in domains whose importance has been largely undervalued because that data is hard to get. I believe that the indicators on People and Community Empowerment will emerge as the most important part of the Index. It is here that even cash-strapped countries can make progress, for empowering individuals and communities to manage their own health provides people with options that they may not otherwise have thought of or considered feasible.

NameDavid Napier

Professor of Medical Anthropology at University College London and one of the principal advisors to the Economist Impact’s Global Health Inclusivity Index

We’re delighted to work with Haleon to launch the first of its kind Health Inclusivity Index. Motivated by the heightened attention from the pandemic around equity in health, the tool aims to support policy makers and advocates in identifying what levers countries can pull to both improve and make more equitable health outcomes. 

The Index is ambitious in scope - linking concepts such as the social determinants of health, health in all policies, universal health coverage, cultural competency, personal agency and community empowerment. We look forward to expanding the breadth and reach of the index over the coming years, and also leveraging the output to drive and measure meaningful change.

David Humphreys

Global Practice Leader, Health Policy, Economist Impact

The full global findings of the Health Inclusivity Index can be found here.


About Haleon

Haleon (LSE / NYSE: HLN) is a global leader in consumer health, with brands trusted by millions of consumers globally. The group employs over 22,000 people across 170 markets, who are united by Haleon’s purpose - to deliver better everyday health with humanity. Haleon’s product portfolio spans five major categories - Oral Health, Pain Relief, Respiratory Health, Digestive Health and Other, and Vitamins, Minerals and Supplements (VMS). Its long-standing brands - such as Advil, Sensodyne, Panadol, Voltaren, Theraflu, Otrivin, Polident, parodontax and Centrum - are built on trusted science, innovation and deep human understanding. 

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Notes to editors:

About the Index:

The inaugural Health Inclusivity Index (HII) sets a new global standard for measuring health inclusivity - defined by Economist Impact as “the process of removing the personal, social, cultural and political barriers which prevent people and communities from achieving better physical and mental health and a life fully realised.”

Starting with 40 countries in its inaugural year, the global benchmark will evolve and expand to include 80 countries over the next two years.

Health Inclusivity Index Scores:



More details on the findings:

The Index concludes that health inclusion is more complex than countries’ wealth (based on GDP per capita) or the GDP spend on healthcare. For example, Thailand performed better than expected, ranking 9th in the Index, despite having a comparatively lower GDP spend on healthcare. Other countries, such as UAE, scored lower than expected given their GDP per capita.

Thailand’s high ranking highlights that community, culture and education can have a greater impact on driving health inclusivity than extensive financial resources. Indeed, a key finding of the report was the need for a holistic approach to health inclusivity beyond a nation’s formal healthcare system. This is demonstrated by Thailand's efforts to actively include vulnerable groups in community outreach programmes and emphasis on health literacy and health education, which drove its strong performance for the metric of ‘People and Community’ empowerment.

About Haleon and Health Inclusivity:

Haleon’s social impact goal is to empower millions of people a year to be more included in opportunities for better everyday health – we plan to reach 50 million people a year by 2025.

We have identified three key barriers to health inclusivity that Haleon is well placed to help address, which are:

  • health literacy;
  • healthcare accessibility; and
  • bias & prejudice

To act on these barriers, we’re driving change through our purposeful brands and services, empowering self-care and investing in research and data to help us understand what’s required to create positive change – of which the Health Inclusivity Index is a prime example.

Examples of Haleon’s efforts to break down barriers to health inclusivity include:

Health Literacy:

Actions to Breathe Cleaner (ABC) and the National Schools Programme:

Otrivin has partnered with the National Schools Partnership to educate pupils about air pollution, its impact on our health and what they can do about it, with inspiring, curriculum-linked resources.

Health Accessibility:

Voltaren easy-to-open caps

Available in the US and globally, the new ‘easy to open’ cap is an award-winning innovation for Voltaren pain relief gel. It’s designed to offer best-in-class inclusive, accessible packaging for users suffering from joint pain.

Bias and Prejudice:

Theraflu Rest & Recovery Fund

For many families, it’s financially impossible to take even one day of unpaid sick time. In the US, Theraflu has partnered with Good+Foundation to create a $150,000 microgrant Fund designed to help offset lost wages from 1,000 unpaid sick days, to support parents facing the financial and logistical challenges of taking a day to rest and recover from an unexpected mild illness.